Building cognitive skills is an important part of early childhood development.
Here’s a brief overview of how children learn and think, some examples of cognitive skills, and the typical stages of cognitive development in early childhood.
There are also 11 simple, actionable tips for parents and teachers of young children.
What is Cognitive Development in Early Childhood?
Cognitive refers to a child’s intellectual skills. It includes how children process information, their understanding of concepts, their ability to learn expressive and receptive language and their perceptual skills.
Cognitive development is one of the four major areas of a child’s holistic development, along with:
At what Age Does Cognitive Development Begin?
Babies start to develop their cognitive skills from birth. In the past, this wasn’t always known. It was presumed that babies were not yet able to process on a cognitive level until they were able to use language.
Now we know that you can improve and stimulate your baby’s intellectual skills right from birth.
Examples of Cognitive Skills
There are many types of cognitive skills and complex thinking processes that children reach at different ages. Here are some examples of cognitive development in early childhood:
- Responding to their name
- Recognizing and naming objects in a book
- Verbalizing needs
- Following instructions
- Counting to 10
- Knowing their gender
- Understanding the difference between the present and the past
- Engaging in symbolic play
- Listening to stories
- Telling stories
- Asking questions
This is not a full list of cognitive skills – just a few examples. There are many milestones to be reached during the first few years.
What are the 4 Stages of Cognitive Development?
Before you can help stimulate cognitive development in preschoolers and toddlers, it is useful to know what stage of thinking they are in and how their thinking should evolve and advance with time.
Jean Piaget was a French psychologist who created a theory of cognitive development. He divided children’s cognitive development into 4 stages, showing how they progressed to more advanced thought patterns as they got older.
The four stages are the sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational periods.
Toddlers and preschoolers are in the pre-operational period.
Here is a brief summary of the stages, summarized from the book “The Young Child in Context: A psycho-social perspective” by Marike de Witt.
This video also provides a great summary of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development.
The Sensorimotor Period (Infancy)
- This stage lasts from birth until around the age of 2.
- Babies interact with their environment mainly through their senses and through movement.
- They haven’t yet developed expressive and receptive language so they don’t think of words as being linked to images or things.
- They don’t yet have a concept of time so they can only focus on the present moment, with no understanding of the past or future.
- They are not yet able to plan.
- With time they learn that objects are permanent, so they realize that something may still be there even if it is not visible. They learn this through games such as peek-a-boo.
- They start imitating and engaging in dramatic or symbolic play.
- There are 6 sub-phases in the sensorimotor period.
The Pre-Operational Period (Toddlerhood and Preschool Age)
- This stage occurs between the ages of 2 to 7.
- It is named pre-operational because it is the stage before children begin to use operational thinking.
- It is divided into two main phases – pre-conceptual thought and intuitive thought.
Pre-Conceptual Thought (2-4 years)
- Children understand the world as they see it – from their own frame of reference.
- They come to conclusions that may not be logical, such as believing the sun is alive because they are alive.
- They use language from their own frame of reference.
- They know the world as they see and experience it.
- They view events as happening independently as they can’t really see a relationship between cause and effect.
- Children identify with their models. They imitate them and feel a sense of awe towards them.
Intuitive Thought (4-7 years)
- Preschoolers and kindergarteners mainly fall into this category.
- Compared to the previous phase where children were very egocentric, they are now less egocentric. They no longer believe the world completely revolves around them.
- Children become more social.
- Words become part of their thinking process.
- They begin to coordinate their egocentric views with actual reality.
- They can only perceive one idea at a time but are not yet able to see the full picture i.e. they can conceptualize the separate parts but not the relationship between things and the bigger picture.
- They may be able to count, but don’t yet have a concept of numbers or what they mean.
- They use language in the correct way but still attach their own meaning to it.
The Concrete Operational Period (School Age)
- From the age of 7 to 11, children fall into the concrete operational period, which means they have a coherent cognitive system.
- Children are capable of thought processes that are reversible, but they are still limited to real (concrete) things.
- They can categorize, classify and place items into hierarchies.
The Formal Operational Period (School Age)
- This period starts at around 11 years of age. Children are now able to think in an abstract and logical way and no longer rely on concrete thinking.
- They are able to make deductions and think about possibilities and hypotheses.
How Young Children Think
Marike de Witt shares these examples of how young children typically think.
As they move through the cognitive stages their thinking matures from the descriptions below to more advanced thinking patterns.
- Language is the most important of the semiotic functions because it is used to represent objects or express actions and thoughts.
- Children begin to use two kinds of mental representations – symbols and signs (e.g. when they draw or engage in symbolic play).
- Children imitate a caregiver even if they are not in their presence. Another version of this is verbal recall (e.g. when they “miaow” even though they can no longer see the cat.)
- They are egocentric, which means they are not fully able to see things from someone else’s perspective or put themselves “in their shoes.”
- Children are focused on and only really concerned with their immediate surroundings. They don’t really think about objectives or situations that are remote in time and space.
- They struggle to make comparisons between things (e.g. bigger, smaller). They see each thing separately.
- They are unable to distinguish between psychological and physical occurrences. They don’t know the difference between what is internal and what is external. (e.g. seeing thinking as part of speaking).
- Children personify objects. They believe objects can feel or act like human beings (e.g. believing the doll is upset).
- Children’s reasoning is not sound. They may not see the relationship between two things or group unrelated things together (e.g. “The girl doesn’t have a name because she can’t talk”). They may not see the relationship between cause and effect (e.g “He’s sick because he didn’t go to school“).
- They can group and classify according to one criterion, such as shapes, but not more than one at the same time (such as shape and colour). This also relates to seriation (arranging different objects according to size). They can categorize the objects into big and small but not order them perfectly in a series of biggest to smallest.
- Children don’t necessarily have a number concept, even if they can count to 10. In order to have a concept of numbers, they must understand the ordinal properties of numbers, the cardinal properties and the conservation of numbers. They must also know numbers can be grouped into different wholes by addition and multiplication and can be broken up by subtraction and division.
How to Improve Cognitive Skills In a Child
During the preschool years, parents can help build their children‘s cognitive development through play and simple activities.
Here are 11 easy cognitive development activities for preschoolers:
There are few activities that will build cognitive skills in preschoolers at the rate that reading to them will.
Reading to your children daily is crucial and will be the difference between a child with a highly developed vocabulary and a child with a basic vocabulary.
While reading to your children, you will be developing:
- Language patterns
- Thinking skills
- Writing skills
- Problem-solving abilities
- Attention span
- Listening skills
…and much more.
Language is one of the most important aspects of early childhood cognitive development. The best way to build it is to expose your children not only to hearing language but also to using it.
You are the primary source of your children’s language in the early years and so it is important that you use it in a grammatically correct and stimulating way. Your children will learn to speak by imitating you.
Talk to your children all the time, at every opportunity you get. Talk to them in the car, in the bath, while preparing supper and while playing.
The less time children lose watching TV and other screens, the more they will engage in conversation with you and others around them.
Talking is crucial to help a child’s cognitive development. Here are some fun word games to play in the car.
3. Nursery Rhymes
Nursery rhymes are more than just fun to sing. They are actually highly stimulating and a great cognitive activity for preschoolers and toddlers.
Expose your children to:
Learning nursery rhymes is an important aspect of pre-reading skills and will set children up for reading success later in school.
4. Thinking Games
Thinking is an important skill for adults and a skill that needs to be actively worked on. Many adults struggle to think outside the box, find solutions or think critically.
Thinking games have the specific intention of working on children’s higher-order thinking skills and critical thinking skills.
These stimulate children to actively practise thinking.
There are various examples of thinking skills. Here are just a few:
- Understanding cause and effect
- Forming opinions
- Thinking creatively
5. Creative Activities
Children spend much of their time naturally engaging in creative activities, whether they are drawing, painting, moulding or creating something with waste materials or boxes. Even making up a game during fantasy play is a form of creative expression.
Whenever a child is using their creative mind they are building their cognitive skills.
Creativity is not really a skill you can teach, but rather a skill you can ignite.
What children need is a platform to be creative. They need materials, stimulation and opportunities. From there, the creative process is a natural one.
6. Problem-Solving Activities
Problem-solving is another area that many older children, as well as adults, struggle with. There are few careers today that do not rely heavily on a person’s ability to solve problems.
The beauty of problem-solving at a young age is that children don’t usually view problems as problems, but rather as challenges to be overcome.
Puzzles are one of my personal favourite activities for kids. They require so much concentration and effort, as well as perseverance to complete.
Children who are solving a puzzle are thinking deeply and building their intellectual capacity.
The most important thing to remember is that a puzzle should be challenging but doable. Choose one that is appropriate for a child’s age. The younger the child, the fewer and bigger the pieces should be.
The right puzzle is one that is challenging but doable, not one that makes a child frustrated.
As children get more confident with them, they will begin to seek out bigger, more complex puzzles.
Get your own puzzles by downloading the FREE set of printables at the end of the post.
Movement is an excellent activity for stimulating brain growth.
Movement wakes up, resets and re-energises the brain. It helps a child’s development in two ways.
Just two minutes of doing a physical activity or going for a run outside can allow children to continue to concentrate and finish the activity they were working on.
9. Symbolic Play
Symbolic play is when children engage in pretend or make-believe play using objects to represent other objects. For example, a child who uses a block as a mobile phone.
Symbolic play is very natural to children and is a highly creative form of play that will develop their intellectual skills.
During this kind of play, children are constantly thinking of new ways to act out their world in order to make sense of it.
Symbolic play is the next step up from functional play where a child will use an appropriate object – for example pretending to iron clothes with a toy iron.
Later on, when they pick up a block to use as an iron, it means their brains have developed the ability to use the block to represent something else. This is an advanced skill.
The only thing children need to engage in symbolic play is access to materials, toys, and plenty of free time.
10. Developmentally Appropriate Toys
A child’s environment can greatly impact how much stimulation they are receiving.
They don’t need any fancy toys or equipment – just basic educational toys, such as wooden blocks, Lego, playdough, books, construction materials and natural materials.
Try to vary children’s experiences by offering different manipulatives. For example, introduce Lego and after a few days, swap the tub and offer wooden blocks instead. This will encourage your children to think of new and different ways to play and create.
Playdough is an excellent and highly educational material that is easy to make.
11. Free Play
Last but not least, free play is undoubtedly the most important tool to develop cognitive skills.
Play is what children do. It’s what they spend all day doing and it’s what they naturally need to do in order to learn.
Everything children learn before the age of 6 will be primarily through play.
In order for this to happen, children need time to be able to play. Unfortunately, in modern times, they often need to sacrifice play time in order to attend extra activities.
Make play a priority in your home or classroom and allow your children to play as much as they are naturally inclined to.
Free play requires no adult intervention. All children need is the time and freedom to do it as they choose.
These are just a few ways to develop children’s cognitive skills.
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